Study In Connection With The Epistle To The Romans
Cecil N. Wright


Matthew 24:22,24,31

Mark 13:20,22,27.

Luke 18:7.

Romans 8:33.

Colossians 3:12.

2 Timothy 2:10 -- "Therefore I endure all things for the elect’s sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory."

Titus 1:1.

1 Peter 1:2.

1 Peter 2:9.

2 John 1:13.



Romans 9:11.

Romans 11:5,7,28.

Ephesians 1:4 -- "chosen in him before the foundation of the world."

1 Thessalonians 1:14.

2 Peter 1:10 -- "make your calling and election sure."


Matthew 25:34 -- "kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."

Ephesians 1:4 -- "chose us in him before the foundation of the world."

Hebrews 4:4 -- "works were finished before the foundation of the world."

1 Peter 1:20 -- "(Christ) was foreknown (KJV, foreordained) indeed before the foundation of the world but was manifested at the end of the times for your sake."

Revelation 13:8 -- "name. . . . written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that hath been slain" (ASV).

"names . . . . written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world" (KJV)
"of whom has not been written the name of him in the book of life of the Lamb having been slain from the foundation of the world" (Greek Word Order).


1. God has an "elect" or "chosen" element of mankind (see the passages cited in I and II)-- chosen for salvation (2 Timothy 2:10).

2. Their "election" is tentative, however, being conditioned on their making it "sure" (2 Peter 1:10;cf. 2 Timothy 2:10).

3. Their "election" or "choosing" occurred "before the foundation of the world" (Ephesians 1:4) -- but was the choosing of a class (those "in" Christ) -- hence, not of specific individuals, but of ideal persons.

4. God not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance (2 Peter 3:9), all persons are invited (see Revelation 22:17; also the Great Commission), though "but a few chosen" (Matt.20:16, KJV; 22:14) -- the majority not making proper response to the invitation.


1. Salvation (soteria, deliverance, preservation, safety, 1:16; 10:10; 11:11; 13:11), involving

a. Justification, or deliverance from the guilt of sin (Chs. 1-5).

b. Sanctification, or deliverance from the dominion and practice of sin (Chs. 6:1-8:17).

c. Glorification, or deliverance from the presence and consequences of sin (ch.8:18-39).

2. Justification.

a. Dikaiosis, the act of pronouncing righteous, acquittal (5:18)

b. Dikaiomai, the state of one who is declared just or righteous (5:16).

3. Sanctification (hagiasmos, separation, or setting apart, 6:19 [KJV, holiness]).

a. From the verb hagiazo, to sanctify, or set apart -- that is, unto God, and unto a manner of life befitting those who are thus sanctified (cf. 1 Thess.4:1-7).

b. Those who are sanctified (or holy) are hagioi, "saints" (1;7; 8:27; 12:13; 15:25;,26,31; 16:2,15).                      

4. Glorification (glorify).

a. Doxazo to honor, magnify, extol, praise.
(1) Of humans, glorifying God (1:21; 15:6,9).

(2) Of Paul, glorifying his ministry (11:13).
b. Sundoxazo, to be glorified with, of saints, glorified with Christ (8:17) -- referring to their eternal and heavenly status (cf. Luke 24:26; 1 Cor.15:43; Rom.8:21-30).

5. Righteousness.

a. Dikaiosune.
(1) God’s righteous character (3:5).

(2) God’s way of making sinful man righteous (1:17; 10:3).

(3) Right standing on part of man with God (4:3,6; 5:17).

(4) Right conduct (6:13,16,18,19,20; cf. Psa. 119:172).

(5) Man’s way of trying to be righteous (10:3; cf. Phil.3:9).

b. Dikaiomai.
(1) Act of righteousness (5:18, ASV; KJV, righteousness).

(2) Ordinance (2:26; 8:4, ASV; KJV, righteousness).

6. Redemption (apolutrosis, a releasing for [upon payment of] a ransom).
a. Release from sins (3:24).

b. Release of body from grave (8:23).

7. Propitiation (hilasterion, propitiatory, mercy-seat).

a. Expiatory sacrifice, provided by God, to satisfy the demands of justice (3:25).

b. Not something offered by worshipper to appease, as among pagans.

8. Reconciliation (katallage, an exchange; a change on the part of one individual by the action of another; renewal of friendship, 5:11, KJV, atonement).

9. Grace (charis, benefit, favor, 1:5,7; 3:24; 4:4,16; 5:2,15,17,20,21; 6:1,14; 11:5,6; 12:3,6; 15:15; 16:20,also 24 in KJV).

  • a.In contrast with debt (4:4).
  • b. In contrast with law (6:14-15; cf. John 1:17).
  • c. In contrast with works (11:6).

    d. Endowment for ministry (1:5; 12:6; 15:15-16).

10. Faith (pistis, 1:5,8.12.17; 3:3,22,25,27,28,30,31; 4:5,9,14,`6,19,20; 5:1,2; 9:30,32;10:6,8,17; 11:20; 12:3,6; 14:1,22,23; 16:26.

a. In objective sense.

(1) The content of faith, what is believed (1:15; 16:26).

(2) Faithfulness (3:3) ASV, KJV, faith.

b. In subjective sense.

(1) Belief or trust (3:25). * (2) Conviction, that a thing is right (14:23).


11. Work (2:15; 3:27,28; 4:2,6; 9:11,32; 11:6; 13:3,12; 14:20).
a. Ergon (deed, act something done or required).
(1) Works of law (3:27,28); cf. Work of faith (Gal.5:6; 1 Thess. 1:3; Jas. 2:14-26); obedience of faith (1:5; 16:26).

(2) Work of God (14:20).

(3) Good works (13:3).

(4) Works of darkness (13:12).

b. Logos (word).
(1) The Lord’s work (9:28, KJV).

(2) The Lord’s word (9:28, ASV).

12. Sin.
a. Hamartia (missing the mark).
(1) A principle or source of action, or an inward element producing sinful acts (3:9; 5:12,13,20; 6:1,2; 7:7,8,9,11,13). (2) A governing principle or power (5:21; 6:6,12,14,17; 7:11,14,17,20,23,25; 8:2). (3) Sin in a generic sense (3:20; 4:7,8; 6:1,2,7,10,11,13,18,20,22,23; 7:5,7,8,9,13; 8:3, 10; 11:27; 14:23).
b. Hamartema, an act of disobedience rather than sin as a principle or source of action (3:25).

13. Death (thanatos).
a. Natural of physical death (5:10,12,14,17; 6:9; 8:38) -- a separation of the spirit from the body (see Jas.2:26; cf. Gen.35:18).

b. Spiritual death (7;10; 8:6) -- an estrangement (see Luke 15:32; 1 Tim.5:6; Eph.2:1; cf. Isa. 59:1-2).

c. Eternal death (1:32; 6:16,21,23; 7:5) -- an eternal separation from God, and called the second death ( see Rev.2:11; 20:6,14; cf. Matt.10:28; 25:41,48; 2 Thess.1:8-9)

d. Note: In Romans the type of death has to be determined from the context, but is always indicative of penal consequences of sin; distribution of above texts is made according to Arndt and Gingrich’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. (See also 6:3,4,5; 7:13,24; 8:2.)

e. Note: Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament give the following more amplified definitions:

  • prop. The death of the body, i.e. that separation (whether natural or violent) of the soul from the body by which the life on earth is ended>
  • metaph. The loss of that life which alone is worthy of the name, i.e. the misery of the soul arising from sin, which begins on earth but lasts and increases after the death of the body
  • the miserable state of the wicked in hell.
  • In the widest sense, death comprises all the miseries arising from sin, as well physical death as the loss of a life consecrated to God and blessed in him on earth . . . to be followed by wretchedness in the lower world.

14. Law (nomos, from nemo, to divide out, distribute, primarily meaning that which is assigned; hence, usage, custom, and then law, as prescribed by custom or by statute, occurring 67 times in the epistle).
a. Law in general (2:12,14; 3:27; 4:15b; 7:1; etc.).

b. Force or influence compelling to action (7:21,23; 8:2).

c. Law of Moses (2:15,18,20,26,27; 3:19; 4:15a; 7:4,7,14,16,22; 8:3,4).

d. The books which contains the law (3:19,21).

e. Law of faith (3:27) -- a principle which demands faith in contrast with works.

15 Wrath.
a. Orge (anger).
(1) Wrath of God (1:18; 2:5; 2:8; 5:9; 9:22; 12:19).

(2) Wrath executed by civil government (13:4,5).

(3) Wrath wrought by law (4:15).

b. Thumos (fierce wrath, boiling up of anger, 2:8; KJV; ASV, indignation).

16. Peace.
a. Eirene (apparently from eiro, to join; opposite of polemos, war, conflict).
(1) Harmonious relationship (3:17; 5:1; 10:15, KJV (Omitted in ASV); 14:17,19).

(2) Tranquillity of mind (8:6; 15:13).

(3) Blessed state of upright persons after death (2:10).

(4) Comprehensive of every kind of peace, but with peace with God predominating (1:7; 15:33; 16:20).

b. Eireneuo.
(1) Be at peace (12:18, ASV).

(2) Live peaceably (KJV).

"Faith" and "belief" are English synonyms, meaning essentially the same thing though they have different derivations, as in the case of "pastor" and "shepherd." "Pastor" is from the Latin noun pastor, which in turn is from the verb pascere, to pasture, to feed, whereas "shepherd" is from the old Anglo-Saxon noun sceaphyrde, a sheep guardian or sheepherder; both words are used to translate the same New Testament Greek word poimen, rendered "pastor" one time and "shepherd" 25 times. Similarly, "faith" derives from the Latin noun fides, a cognate of the verb fidere, to trust, whereas "belief" derives from the Anglo-Saxon noun geleaia, akin to the verb belelan, or belilan, to believe (which is spelled with both the "I" and the "e"; and both words are employed to translate the same New Testament Greek noun pistis -- rendered "belief" twice (Rom.10:17; KJV, faith) and "faith" 239 times -- whose cognate verb pisteuo is translated "believe" 233 times, but never by the long time obsolete English verb "faith," except as an alternate rendering of "belief" in 2 Thess. 2:13, ASV.
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