Doctrinal Exposition of Justifcation by Faith
Romans 1:18-4:25).

1. Wrath of God revealed against all of unrighteousness of men, and all men are sinners in need of justification. (1:18-3:20).

  1. Gentiles (not yet called by name, who do not have the Law of Moses as do the Jews) are unrighteous (1:18-22).
  2. God will be impartial toward Jews and Gentiles, judging each according to the light he has (2:1-16).
  3. Jews,notwithstanding their advantages (including possession of the Law of Moses), are unrighteous (2:17-3:8).
  4. Therefore, all the world (Jew and Gentile alike) is guilty before God on the basis of works--with no possibility of justification through works of law-- hence, all alike under the wrath of God and in need of righteousness of God (3:9-20).

 2. Righteousness of God for sinners now being manifested (3:21-31).

  1. Righteousness apart from law, but witnessed by the law and the prophets (v.21; cf. 4:1-25)
  2. Righteousness through faith in Jesus Christ for all, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (vs.22-23).
  3. Free (unearned, undeserved) justification, by grace of God, through the redemption that is in Christ -- God having set him forth as a propitiation through faith in his blood, in order to be just and the justifier of him who believes in Jesus (vs. 24-26).
  4. Righteousness that excludes glorying -- because it is by a law of faith and not by a law of works, (vs. 27-28).e. Righteousness by faith for the circumcised Jew and the uncircumcised
  5. Gentile alike, because God is alike the God of both (vs.29-30).
  6. Righteousness which, though it is by faith, does not make law of no effect but rather establishes it (vs.31)--law being useless only for justification, not for other purposes (cf. 1 Tim. 1:8:11): To restrain sin, to increase consciousness of sin, to serve as tutor to bring us to Christ; also to furnish prophecies, types, and shadows of what we have in Christ (cf. Col. 2:16-17; Hebrews. 10:1).

3. Righteousness by faith exemplified in case of Abraham and described by David, as witnessed by Old Testament Scriptures (4:1-25).

  1. Abraham’s faith rather than his works counted for righteousness (see Gen. 15:6) -- hence, reckoned as of grace, not of debt, as described by David (see Psalm. 32:1-2), his sins being forgiven and therefore not reckoned against him (vs.1-8).
  2. Abraham counted righteous by faith before and without circumcision (as well as after it), that he might be the father of all who believe, whether they be circumcised or uncircumcised (vs. 9-12).
  3. The inheritance promised to Abraham and his seed was not to be received through law but through the righteousness of faith -- that it might be according to grace and sure to all seed -- not only to that which is of law (Jews) but to that of other nations (Gentiles) as well, who are of the faith of Abraham -- having faith in him who gives life to the dead and calls things that are not as though they were (vs. 13-17).
  4. Abraham, when good as dead (procreationally), through faith received strength to perform (to beget a son) and become the father of many nations, which faith (as well as previous faith, according to Genesis 15:6) was reckoned unto him for righteousness (vs. 18-22).
  5. That Abraham’s faith was thus reckoned was not written for his sake alone, but for ours also, to whom faith shall be reckoned for ritghteousness if we believe on him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who (Jesus) was delivered for our transgressions and raised for our justification (vs. 23-25).
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