Romans

Practical Advantages of Justification by Faith
Romans 5:1-8:39

1. Salvation from wrath (5:1-21): CHANGE OF PROSPECT (because of God's love manifested in Christ).

a. Chain of blessings of justification by faith, culminating in salvation from wrath of God (vs. 1-11).

  • Peace with God through Christ (v. 1).
  • Access into the grace wherein we stand (v. 2).
  • Rejoicing in hope of the glory of God (v. 2; cf. 18:17-29).
  • Rejoicing in tribulations also --because they work steadfastness, approvedness, hope -- and hope does not put us to shame, because God's love has been shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit which has been given to us (vs. 3-5; cf. Chapter 8:31-39).
  • Reason for the hope of the glory of God (vs. 6-11).
    1. While we were weak and ungodly Christ died for us because of God's love for us (vs. 6-8).
    2. Now that we have been justified and reconciled by Christ's death, much more, then, shall we be saved by his life from the wrath of God (vs. 9-11).
b. Blessings of justification by faith made possible by Christ's undoing of ruin wrought by Adam, and more (vs. 12-21).
Sin was introduced by Adam, and death by sin, and death passed to all men because all sinned (vs. 12-14).
  • (This was true before the time of the Law of Moses (which caused sin to abound, v. 20, but did not introduce either it or universal death) (vs. 13-14).
  • Before (achri, until, or to the extent of) law, sin was in the world; but sin is not imputed when there is no law (vs. 13) -- hence, no law between Adam and Moses the violation of which accounts for universal death before Moses.
  • (c) Nevertheless death reigned (between Adam and Moses)even over those whose sins were not like Adam's (vs. 14) -- not entailing the death penalty.
  • (d) Adam, a type of Christ (v. 14b) -- Adam, the physical head of redeemed humanity (1 Corinthians. 11:3), resulting in humanity's solidarity with Adam the same as redeemed humanity's solidarity with Christ (see 1 Corinthians. 15:21-22) -- meaning all men sinned in Adam as a representative of the human race (as Levi paid tithes through Abraham while still in the loins of the latter, Hebrews. 7:9-10).
  • (e) NOTE: The physical relationship of humanity with Adam does not extend to the spirit of men, which comes from God without doing so through human parentage (Hebrews. 12:9).
(2) Influence of Christ is the reverse of that of Adam, and exceeds it (vs. 15-17).
  1. (a) Free gift of Christ not like the trespass of Adam; it abounds in grace more than the latter results in death (v. 13).
  2. Free gift of Christ followed many trespasses, bringing justification; judgment followed one sin of Adam, beginning condemnation (v. 16)
  3. By the trespass of one (Adam), death reigned through the one; those who receive grace and the gift of righteousness will much more reign in life through one, Jesus Christ (v. 17).
(3) Summary and conclusion (vs. 18-21).
  1. (a) One man's trespass led to condemnation of all men; one man's act of righteousness leads to justification unto life for all men (v. 18).
  2. By one man's disobedience, the many were made sinners; by the obedience of one, many shall be made righteous (v. 19).
  3. Law came in besides (in addition to Adam's sin), and caused the trespass to abound; but where sin abounded, grace abounded more exceedingly (v. 20).
  4. As sin reigned in death, grace may reign through righteousness Justification) unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord (v. 21).

2. Freedom from sin (6:1-23): CHANGE OF MASTERS (in baptism).

a. Through baptism (vs. 1-11).

(1) In our death to sin (vs. 1-3).
(2) In our resurrection to a new life (v. 4).
(3) In our close and intimate union with Christ (v. 5).
(4) In the crucifixion of our old man (v. 6).
(5) In our being delivered from sin as our master (
(6) In the example of Christ which we have received as our rule of life (vs. 8-11).
b. To serve righteousness (vs. 12-23).
  1. (1) Possibility imposes obligation (vs. 12-13, cf. 8:12-17)
  2. Possible because not under law but under grace (b. 14; cf. Chapters 7-8).
  3. Enjoyed in connection with obedience to form of doctrine unto which delivered (vs. 15-21).
  4. Resulting in sanctification now and in eternal life hereafter (vs. 22-23; cf. 1 Thessalonians 4:3-8 with reference to sanctification).

3. Deliverance from law (7:1-25): CHANGE OF MARRIAGE PARTNERS (through the body of Christ).

    a. As death dissolves previous marriage and allows remarriage of the living, we become dead to the law through the body of Christ and live again with him (becoming identified with him in both his death and resurrection through baptism, 6:3-5,11), that we should be joined (married) to another (even Christ), in order to bring forth fruit unto God--which we could not do when in the flesh, which was the case under the law, which stimulated the motions of sin in our members, bringing forth death--but now we are delivered from the law, that we should serve in newness of spirit, not in oldness of letter (vs. 1-6).
  1. b. This does not mean the law is sinful, but rather it defines sin, stimulates and increases it and the consciousness of it, which results in death (spiritual death in addition to the death of the body wrought be Adam's sin) (vs. 7-13).
  2. c. This does not mean the law itself causes death, but that it is impotent to call forth what it enjoins and to enable the will to overcome the law of sin (the reign or control of sin) in the members of those who wish to obey God, for there is conflict between the flesh and spirit (see Gal. 5:16-18), with deliverance from sin's control to be had only in Christ (vs. 14-25).

4. Freedom from death (8:1-39): CHANGE IN BALANCE OF POWER (by the indwelling Spirit of God).

  1. a. Holiness possible in Christ (vs. 1-11).
    • No condemnation in Christ, for the law (the reign or control) of the Spirit of life in Christ has made me free from the law (the reign or control) of sin and death (in my members, 7:21-23) (vs. 1-2).
    • For what the law (of Moses) could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh (see 7:7-25), God has done by sending his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin (a propitiation for our sins, 3:25), condemning sin in the flesh (overthrowing it, cf. 2 Pet. 2:6), so that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us--who walk not after the flesh (our lower, sinful nature) but after the spirit (our higher nature that delights in the law of God, 7:22) (vs. 3-4).
    • To be controlled by the flesh is enmity against God, and death' to be controlled by the spirit is life and peace--and we are controlled by the spirit if the Spirit of God, the Spirit of Christ, (the Holy Spirit, 1 Pet. 1:10-12), indwells us--without which we are none of his (vs. 5-9).
    • If (though) Christ, and therefore his Spirit, is in us, the body is dead (subject to death, mortal for the time being, because of Adam's sin and our connection with him,) but the spirit is life (alive) because of righteousness (the righteous act of Christ, 5:18, and our acceptance of him); also, by the Spirit of God which indwells us, and which raised Christ from the dead, God will likewise give life to our mortal bodies (in the resurrection) (vs. 10-11)
  2. b. Holiness a responsibility in Christ, even to the point of suffering because of it if necessary (vs. 12-17).
    • Because we can avoid it, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after it; for if we live after the flesh, we shall die (vs. 12-13a).
    • But, if by the Spirit we put to death the deeds of the body, we shall live (v. 13b) and be sons of God.
    • For as many as are led by the Spirit of God are the sons of God and receive the spirit (possibly in the sense of disposition) of adoption as sons, causing us to cry, Abba Father (the opposite of a spirit of slavery (vs. 14-15).
    • The Spirit himself bears witness with
    • our spirit that we are children of God (v.16) No doubt by and through the written word now, and buy its effects in our hearts and lives (cf. Gal. 5:22-23).
    • If we are children of God, we are also heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ--if so be that we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him (v. 17)--The glory being in and after the resurrection.
    c. Future glory assured in Christ (vs. 18-39).
    (1) A sure hope to sustain us in our sufferings (vs. 18-25).
    • Sufferings of present time do not compare with the great glory to be revealed (vs.18).
    • Creation itself expectantly waiting for revealing of the sons of God (by their resurrection), to be delivered from the bondage of Corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God (vs. 19-21).
    • Whole creation groans and travails in pain, and so do we also, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit, waiting for our adoption, the redemption of our body (in the resurrection) (vs. 22-23).
    • Our hope for such enables us to wait patiently (perseveringly) for it (vs. 24-25).
    < (2) A sure help otherwise. (Vs. 26-30).
    • The Spirit helping our infirmity, including assistance in prayer, making intercession for us according to the will of God (vs. 26-27).
    • All things working together for our good, who are called according to God's purpose--which includes foreknowledge (approval beforehand of those who would accept Christ) and foreordination to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn (the preeminent One) among many brethren, with the intermediate steps of calling (by the gospel, 2 Thessalonians 2:14), justification, and glorification (vs. 28-30).
    (3) A certainty of salvation because of the immutability of God's love for us (vs.31-39).
    • God being for us, nobody else can successfully be against us (v. 31).
    • God having spared not his Son, but delivered him up for us, shall surely give us all things needful for our salvation (v. 32).
    • The only one who could successfully lay
    • any charge against us is God, and it is he that justifies us (v. 33).
    • The only one who (besides the Father) could successfully condemn us is Christ, and he died and was raised from the dead for us, and is on the right hand of God, making intercession for us. (v. 34).
    • Persecution and deprivation will not separate us from the love of Christ, for it is for his sake we suffer such, and in these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us (vs. 35 -37).
    • Absolutely nothing can separate us from the love of God for us, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord (vs. 38-39).
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