Eternity, Judgment, Heaven and Hell

HEAVEN

 1. Etymology.

 a. English: Akin to the word "heave," and refers to that which lifted or pushed up, hence, high, literally or figuratively.

 b. Hebrew: Shamayim, expanse, or heaved up things; the heights above, the upper regions – occurring 419 times in the Old Testament – in the King James Version translated "air" 21 times (Genesis 1:26,28,30; 2:19,30; 6:7; 7:3; 9:2; Deuteronomy 4:17; 28:26; 1 Samuel 17:44,46; 2 Samuel 21:10; 1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:24; Job 12:7; 28:21; Psalm 8:8 Proverbs 30:19; Ecclesiastes 10:20) – but these as well as all other occurrences are translated as "heaven" or heavens" in the American Standard Version.

 c. Greek: Ouranos, from a root meaning "to cover," "encompass"; and, in imitation of the Hebrew shamayim, properly of the heights above, or heaved up things; probably, says vine, akin to ornumi, to lift, to heave – occurring 278 times in the New Testament – in the King James Version translated as "air" ten times (Matthew 6:26; 8:20; 13:32; Mark 4:4,32; Luke 8:5; 9:58; 13:19; Acts 10;12; 11:6 – but these and all other occurrences are translated as "heaven," or "heavens" in the American Standard Version.

 2. Distinctions.

 a. The vaulted expanse of the sky with all things in it:

  (1) Opposite of the earth, as in expressions of "heaven and earth" (Genesis 1:1; Matthew 24:35; Hebrews 12:25-28; 2 Peter 3:10-13; Revelation 20:11; 21:1) – embracing the next two numbers.

  (2) Aerial or atmospheric heavens, as "birds of heaven" or "clouds of heaven" (Matthew 6:26; 8:20; Acts 10:12; 11:6; James 5:18).

  (3) Siderial heavens, the region of the "sun," "moon," and "stars" (Genesis 1:14-16; Psalm 8:3-4; Matthew 24:29,35; Mark 13:15,31; Hebrews 11:12; Revelation 6:14; 20:11).

 b. The region above the siderial heavens – the seat of things eternal and consummately perfect, where God and other heavenly beings dwell (Matthew 5:16; 12:50; Revelation 3:12; 11:13; 16:11; 20:9) –the "third heaven" (2 Corinthians 12:2) – "heaven of heavens" (1 Kings 8:27). (Cf. Ephesians 4:10, "far above all heavens," Hebrews 1:3, and Revelation 3:21-22.) REPRESENTED IN THE DIAGRAM.

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